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Bitcoin (Created in January 2009)

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Bitcoin (₿) is a decentralise digital currency without a Central Bank or single administrator, and it can be transfer from person to person on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without any middlemen. A blockchain is a public ledger for recording and verifying transactions that are validate by network nodes through cryptography. The crypto currenct is also invent in 2008 by unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto. The currency began use in 2009. When its implementation was release as open-source software.

In the process of mining, they are create as a reward. The exchange, they can be use to purchase other currencies, products, or services. It has been criticize for its use in illegal transactions, the large amount of electricity used by mining, price votalility, and thefts from exchanges. The market has been describe variously as a speculative bubble by investors and economists. Others have used for investment, although several regulatory agencies have issued alerts regarding bitcoins.

What is bitcoin ?

It is also a crypto currency create in 2009. A bitcoin exchange allows people to buy or sell them from different countries through an online marketplace.  The card can be use to book hotels on Expedia, to shop for furniture on Overstock, and to purchase Xbox games.  However, much of the hype revolves around getting rich from trading it. The price of skyrocketed into the thousands in 2017.

Understanding Bitcoin

It is a system of computers running bitcoin’s code and storing its blockchain. To put it another way, a block chain can be thought of as a collection of books. Each block consists of one or more transactions . Because all of the computers running the blackchain have the same list of blocks and transactions and can transparently see these new blocks as they’re fill with new transactions, no one can cheat the system.

Anyone- whether they run a “node” or not- can see these transactions occuring in real time. To achieve a nefarious act, a bad actor would need to operate 51% of the computing power that makes up. It has around 13,768 fulll nodes, as of mid-November 2021, and this number is growing, making such attack quite unlikely.

In the event of attack, the winners are those who participate in the bitcoin. With their computers- would dlikely split off to a new blockchain, making the effort the bad actors put forth to achieve the attack a waste.

>> Dive Deeper “What is crypto currency


* Units and divisibility

Te unit of account of the system is also the bitcoin. Currency codes for representing are also BTC and XBT. Its unicode character is ₿. Eight decimal places are available when dividing one. Units for smaller amount of are the millibitcoin (mBTC), equal to 1/1000 and the satoshi. Which is the smallest possible division and named in homage to bitcoin’s creator, representing 1/100,000,000 (one hundre millionth).

* Blockchain

Data structure of blocks in the ledger..

An electronic ledger that records transactions is the blockchain. It is implement as a chain of blocks, each block containing a hash of the previous block up to the genesis block in the chain. The blockchain is maintain by nodes running software communicating with each other. This network broadcasts transactions in the form of payer X sending Y bitcoins to payee Z utilizing readily available software applications.

Network nodes can validate transactions, and them to their copy of the ledger. And then broadcast these ledger addition to other nodes. To also achieve indipendent verification of the chain of ownership each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain. At varying intervals of time averaging to every 10 minutes, a new group of accept transactions called. A block, is create, add to the blockchain, and quickly published to all nodes, without requiring central oversight.

* Transactions

It is define using forth-like scripting language. Transactions consist of one or more inputs and one or more outputs. When a user send, the user designates each address. And the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in at output. To prevent double spending, each input must also refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain.

If you use multiple inputs, you would use multiple coins in a cash transaction. Users can send bitcoins in one transaction to multiple recipients since transactions can have multiple outputs. As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs (coins used to pay) can exceed the intended of payments. In such a case, an additional output is use returning the change back to the payer. If the transaction outputs do not account for all input satoshis, then the transaction fee is charge.

* Ownership

In the blockchain, bitcoins are register to bitcoin addresses. The only requirement for creating a bitcoin address is to choose a random valid private key and calculate the corresponding bitcoin address. In a split second, this computation can be complete. On the other hand, computing the private key for a particular bitcoin address is virtually impossible.

Users can tell others oe make public a bitcoin address without compromising its corresponding private key. In addition, there are so many valid private keys. It is highly unlikely someone could compute a key pair that was already in use and had funds. The vast number of valid private keys makes it unfeasible that brute force could be use to comprise a private key.


The mining process is a form of record keeping performed by computers. Miners keep the blockchain consistent, complete, and unalterable by repeat grouping newly broadcast transactions into a block. Which is then broadcast to the network and verify by recipient nodes. A SHA-256 hash of the previous block is included in each block. Thus tying it to the previous block and giving it the name blockchain.

To be accept by the rest of the network, a new block must contain a proof-of-work (POW). A nonce (number used once) Such that when the block content is hash along with thw nonce, the result is numerically smaller than the network’s difficultly target.

Mining process (Bitcoin)

It is easy for any node in the network to verify this proof. The process of generating a secure cryptographic key is extremely time-consuming. Miners must try many diferent nonce value (usually the sequence of tested values is the ascending natural numbers : 0,1,2,3…..). If a result is below the difficulty target before. Because the difficulty target is extremely small compare to a typical SHA-256 hash. Block hashes have many leading Zeros as can be seen in this example block hash.

Computing power is often bundle together by a minning pool to reduce variance in miner income. It often take miners a long time to confirm a block transaction and receive. In a pool, all participating server solves a block. A miner’s payment is determined by the amount of work he contributed to finding the block.


The successful miner finding the new block is allow by the rest of the network to collect for themselves all transaction fees from transactions. In the block, they included a pre- determined reward as well as bitcoins created in the block. As of 11 May 2020, this reward is currently 6.25 newly create bitcoins per block.

To claim this reward, a special transaction call a coinbase is include in the block, with the miner as the payee. All bitcoins in existence have been create through this type of transaction. The bitcoin protocol specifies that the reward of adding a block will be reduce. Half every 210,000 blocks (every four years). Eventually, the reward will round down to Zero, and the limit of 21 million bitcoins will be reach.


A wallet stores the information necessary to transact bitcoins. While wallets are often describe as a place to hold or store bitcoins, due to the nature of the system, bitcoins are inspirable from the blockchain transaction ledger. The defination of a wallet is more correctly defined as a device that stores and provides access to one’s bitcoin holdings.

* Software Wallets

The first wallet program, simply also named bitcoin, and sometimes refer to as the Satoshi client, was release in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto as open-source software. In version 0.5 the client move from the wxWidgets user interface toolkit to Qt and the whole bundle was refer to as Bitcoin-Qt. After the release of version 0.9 the software bundle was rename Bitcoin Core to distinguish itself from the underlying network.

* Cold Storage

Wallet software is target by hackers because of the lucrative potential for stealing bitcoins. A technique called “cold storage” keeping private keys out of reach of hackers; this is accomplish by keeping private keys offline all times by generating them on a device that is not connect to the Internet.

* Hardware Wallets

User sign transactions using a hardware wallet as a computer peripheral. In addition to storing keys, these devices sign and encrypt data interally. You should not share any sensitive information with the host computer except for already signed transactions. Because hardware walllets never expose their private keys, even computers that may be compromise by malware do not have a vector to access or steal them.

* Paper Wallets

A paper wallet is create with a keypair generate on a computer with no internet connection. The private key is written or print into the paper and then erase from the computer. The paper wallet can then be store in a safe physical location for later retrieval. Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins with a private key accessible under a security hologramin a recess struck on the reverse side. The security hologram self-destructs when remove from the token, showing that the private key has been access.

How Does Bitcoin Works ?

A bitcoin’s blockchain is the most important element, as it stores a record of every transaction in the network. Aside from cryptographic keys and walets, bitcoin features precesses like halving that cause inflation in its network by reducing the number of bitcoins in existence.

Every bitcoin transaction is recorded in a public ledger, and copies are stored on servers around the world. An individual with a spare computer can set up one of these servers, called nodes. Consensus on who owns which coins is reach cryptographically across these nodes rather than relying on a central source of trust like a bank.

Every transaction is publicly broadcast to the network and share from node to node. Every ten minutes or so these transactions are collect together by miners into a group call a block and add permanently to the blockchain. This is the definitive account book of bitcoin.

Much like traditional coins in a physical wallet. Digital wallets contain virtual currencies and can be accessed through client software, online services or hardware applications.

A private key is use to prove ownership of funds to the network when making a transaction. An individual could simply memorize their private key and use it to retrieve or spend their virtual money, a concept known as a “brain wallet”.

Can Bitcoin Be converted To Cash ?

Bitcoin can be exchange for cash just like any asset. There are numerous cryptocurrency exchanges online where people can do this but transactions can also be carry out in person or over any communications platform, allowing even small businesses to accept bitcoin. Software does not include the ability to convert bitcoin into another currency.Software does not include the ability to convert bitcoin into another currency.

Nothing inherently valuable underpins the bitcoin network. The US dollar and UK Pound have been among the world’s most stable national currencies since they left the gold standard.

Are Bitcoin Safe ?

This cryptography is based on SHA-256, an algorithm developed by the US National Security Agency. Cracking this is, for all intents and purposes, impossible as there are more possible private keys that would have to be test (2256) than there are atoms.

Bitcoin exchanges have been hack and funds stolen in high-profile cases, but invariably these services store the digital currency on behalf of their customers. In these cases, it was the website and not the bitcoin network that was compromised.

A hacker could create a consensus that they own all bitcoin if they could control over half of all the nodes in existence. We could embed this into the blockchai, but with more nodes it is less feasible.

The reality is that bitcoin operates without any central authority. A wallet user making an error on a transaction has no resource because of this.

There is a chance that the eventual arrival of quantum computing could change everything. Current computers are unable to handle the mathematical calculations required or much cryptography, but quantum computers may be able to solve these in fraction of the time..

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